Custom exceptions

Custom exceptions allow us to define and raise specific types of errors that are relevant to your program or application.

To create a custom exception, you can define a new class that inherits from the built-in Exception class or any of its subclasses. You can add additional attributes or methods to your custom exception class as needed.

Let's take an example of a custom exception called InvalidInputError:

class InvalidInputError(Exception):
    def __init__(self, message):
        self.message = message

    def __str__(self):
        return f"Invalid Input: {self.message}"

In this code, we define a custom exception class called InvalidInputError that inherits from the Exception class. We add an __init__ method to initialize the exception with a custom error message, and a __str__ method to provide a string representation of the exception when it is raised.

To raise the custom exception, you can use the raise keyword followed by an instance of the custom exception class:

def divide(x, y):
    if y == 0:
        raise InvalidInputError("Cannot divide by zero")
    return x / y

    result = divide(10, 0)
except InvalidInputError as e:
    print(e)  # Output: Invalid Input: Cannot divide by zero

In this code, we define a function called divide that performs division. If the divisor y is 0, we raise the InvalidInputError exception with a custom error message. We catch the exception using a try-except block and print the error message.