Conditional statements

Conditional statements allow us to make decisions based on certain conditions. They help your program to perform different actions based on whether a condition is true or false.

The most common conditional statement in Python is the if statement. It allows us to execute a block of code only if a certain condition is true. Here's an example:

age = 15

if age >= 18:
    print("You are old enough to vote!")

In this example, we have a variable called age with a value of 15. The if statement checks if the condition age >= 18 is true. If it is, the code inside the if block (indented with four spaces) will be executed. In this case, since age is not greater than or equal to 18, the code inside the if block will not be executed.

You can also include an else statement to specify what should happen if the condition is false. Here's an example:

age = 15

if age >= 18:
    print("You are old enough to vote!")
else:
    print("You are not old enough to vote yet.")

In this code, if the condition age >= 18 is true, the code inside the if block will be executed. Otherwise, the code inside the else block will be executed.

You can also use the elif statement (short for "else if") to check multiple conditions. Here's an example:

age = 15

if age >= 18:
    print("You are old enough to vote!")
elif age >= 16:
    print("You can get a driver's license!")
else:
    print("You are not old enough to vote or get a driver's license yet.")

In this code, the first condition age >= 18 is checked. If it is true, the code inside the first if block will be executed. If it is false, the next condition age >= 16 is checked. If it is true, the code inside the elif block will be executed. If both conditions are false, the code inside the else block will be executed.

Conditional statements are very useful for controlling the flow of your program based on different conditions. They allow us to make decisions and perform different actions depending on the situation.